Plants -

Cell Type: Eukaryote
Body Type: Multi-cellular
Cell Wall: The cell wall of a plant is composed of cellulose.
Nutrition: Autotroph

The Four Types of Plants:

1 - Nonvascular

Nonvascular plants do not have vascular systems. Because of this they live close to the ground and rely on water to reproduce.

The most common of nonvascular plants are moss.

You tend to find moss on the surfaces of wet rock appearing as clumps of grass.
Moss also belongs to the Bryophyta phylum.

Moss growing on rocks.

Another example of a nonvascular plant is the liverworts.
Liverworts belong to the Hepatophyta phylum and grow in damp environments on wet rocks.


Lastly, hornworts are another example of a nonvascular plant.
Hornworts are found in tropical forest along streams.
They are also apart of the Anthrocerophyta phylum.

A picture of a hornwort plant.

2- Seedless Vascular

Seedless vascular plants do have vascular systems that allow them to grow higher and still receive nutrients from the soil.

However, like nonvascular plants, seedless vascualr plants also rely on water to reproduce.

Some examples of seedless vascular plants are club mosses which belong to the Lycopodium phylum and ferns.

Club Moss

A picture of club moss.


A picture of a fern plant.

3 - Gymnosperm

A gymnosperm is a seed plant whose seeds are NOT enclosed in the fruit.

Conebearing plants are good examples of a gymnosperm plant.

A conebearing plant.

There are 3 phylums that include gymnosperm plants.

  • Cycadophyta - Palm Trees

Palm Trees

  • Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Trees

Ginkgo tree

  • Coniferophyta - Pine Trees

Pine tree

4 - Angiosperm

Angiosperm trees are seed plants whose seeds ARE enclosed in the fruit. Such as flowering plants.

Examples: Peaches and dandelions

There is one phylum included in angiosperm plants. The Anthophtya phylum.

Peach growing on a tree.

Picture of dandelions

Plant Cells -

Plant cells have cell walls, large vacuoles, and plastids.

There are 3 types of plant cells.

1 - Parenchyma Cell

The parenchyma cell is the most common of all plant cells.

It stores starches, oils, and water and allows plants to grow into new plants.

The parenchyma plant cell also has a thin and flexible cell wall that allows the plant to change its shape.

A parenchyma cell

2 - Collenchyma Cell

The collenchyma plant cell have cell walls that vary from thick to thin and allow the plant to change size.

A collenchyma cell

3 - Sclerenchyma Cell

The sclerenchyma plant cell is the strongest of all the plant cells and have a thick rigid cell wall.

A sclerenchyma cell

Plant Tissue -

There are three types of plant tissue.

1 - Dermal Tissue

The dermal tissue of a plant covers and protects the outside of a plant.

It is made up of live parenchyma in nonwoody plants and dead parenchyma and makes up the outer bark of wood plants.
The dermal tissue for plants is like the skin of humans.

2 - Ground Tissue

The ground tissue of a plant makes up the inside of a plant.
It also provides support for the roots and stems of a plant.
Chloroplast which is where photosynthesis takes place, is found in the ground tissue.

3 - Vascular Tissue

The vascular tissue of a plant is surrounded by ground tissue and transports water, nutrients, and organic compounds to plants.
Vascular tissue is made up of two networks.

  • Xylem - carries water and dissolved mineral nutrients from the roots to the rest of the plant
  • Phloem - carries the product of photosynthesis throughout the plant

planttissue.jpg The dermal tissue of a plant is like the skin of humans and the vascular tissue is relative to the veins in humans.

The skin on the human would be considered the dermal tissue of a plant and the veins inside of the body would be the vascular tissue.

Roots -

Roots support the plant and absorb, transport, and store nutrients for the plant.

There are three parts to a root.

1 - Vascular Cylinder

2 - Root Hairs - Allow the root to take in water

3 - Root Cap - Covers the tip of a root

Apical meristems lengthen the tips of a root and lapical meristems thicken the roots.

Two Types of Roots -

Tap Root - long, thick, vertical, allows the plant to get water from deep under the ground - Ex. Carrots and beets

Fibrous Root - fine branches of the same size that spread out and anchor under the ground

Stems -

Stems allow better pollination and access to sunlight for plants.

Stems store water and is where the vascular system is found in the plant.

There are two types of stems.

1 - Herbaceous - little to no wood

Herbaceous stem

2 - Woody - Ex. Tree Bark

Woody Stem

There are two types of stem growth

1 - Primary growth - lengthens the roots and stem

2 - Secondary growth - widens the roots and stem

Leaves -

Leaves grow out of the plant stem and is made up of two parts.

The first part of a leaf is the blade. The blade collects sunlight to perform photosynthesis.
The second part of a leaf is the petiole. The petiole is what connects the leaf to the stem.
Leaves contain dermal and vascular tissues.
Leaves are the main sites for photosynthesis and adapt for photosynthesis according to the environment the plant is in.

Leaf parts

The 3 Types of leaves -




Compound leaves

Double Compound

Double compound leaf

Leaf Veins -

There are two types of veins a leaf can have.

Parallel Veins

The veins in the leaf are parallel to eachother.

Primate Veins


Leaf Margins -

Leaves can have one of three margins.







Figure from 22.5 p. 668

Phylum: Bryophyta
Common name: Moss
Description: Nonvascular plants. Gametophyte generation, is a grass-like plant. Most live in moist environments.
Ex. Sphaghum (peat) Moss

Phylum: Hepatophyta
Common name: Liverworts
Description: Nonvascular plants named for their liver shapes. Gametophyte generation. Most live in moist environment.
Ex. Marchantia

Phylum: Anthocerotophyta
Common name: Hornworts
Description: Nonvascular plants named for the visible horn-like structures they use to reproduce. Live in moist environments.
Ex. Dendroceros

Phylum: Lycophyta
Common name: Club mosses
Description: Seedless vascular plants, some resemble tiny pine trees. Live in wooded environments.
Ex. Lycopodium (ground pine)

Phylum: Pterophyta
Common name: Ferns, Whisks ferns, and horsetails
Description: Seedless vascular plants. Most have fringed leaves. Whisk ferns sometimes classified in the phylum Psilophyta ; Horsetails are sometimes classified in the Sphenophyta phylum
Ex. Psilotum (Whisk Fern)

Phylum: Cycadophyta
Common name: Cycads
Description: Gymnosperms, reproduce with seeds produced in large cones. Slow-growing, palm-like plants that grow in tropical environments.
Ex. Sago Palms

Common name: Ginkgo Biloba
Description: Only species in phylum, tree often planted in urban environments. Gymnosperm that reproduce with seeds that hang from branches.

Phylum: Coniferophyta
Common name: Conifers
Description: Gymnosperms ; reproduce with seeds produced in cones. Usually evergreen.
Ex. Pines, spruces, firs, and sequoias

Phylum: Anthophyta
Common name: Flowering plants
Description: Called angiosperms, reproduce with seeds in flowers. Seeds are surrounded by fruit which is the ripened plant ovary.

CLASS: Monocotyledonae : Monocots. Embryos have one cotyledon. Leaves with parallel veins, flower parts in multiples of three and vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem.
Ex. Irises, tulips, and grasses

CLASS: Dieotyledonae: Dicots. Embryos have two cotyledons. Leaves with netlike veins. Flower parts in multiples of four or five, and vascular bundles arranged in rings.
Ex. Roses, daises, deciduous trees, and foxgloves